IFA Congresses

A Within- and Between-Subject FMRI Experiment Before and After a Fluency Shaping Therapy

A Within- and Between-Subject FMRI Experiment Before and After a Fluency Shaping Therapy

Katrin Neumann1, Harald A. Euler2, Christine Preibisch3, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg4
1Clinic of Phoniatry and Pedaadiology, University of Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 F rankfurt/Main, Germany
2Department of Psychology, University of Kassel, Hollaend. St): 36-38, 3412 7 Kassel, Germany
3Department of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt, Schlensenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
4Institute of the Kasseler Stottertherapie, 34308 Bad Emstal, Germany

SUMMARY

FMRI findings of 9 male persons who stutter (PWS) compared to 16 non-stuttering controls (PWNS) are reported. Distributed, predominantly right-hernispheric overactivations in PWS during overt reading were more widespread and left-sided after fluency shaping therapy and were slightly reduced and again more right-sided two years later. These findings, together with larger activations post-treatment also in a semantic task, suggest that overactivations might reflect compensatory mechanisms. Left frontal deactivations were insensitive to therapy and therefore possibly indicate dysfunctions. Thus, fluency-inducing techniques might synchronize a disturbed signal transmission between auditory, speech motor planning, and motor areas.

Read more: A Within- and Between-Subject FMRI Experiment Before and After a Fluency Shaping Therapy

A Sensorimotor Perspective on Stuttering: Insights from the Neuroscience of Motor Control

A Sensorimotor Perspective on Stuttering: Insights from the Neuroscience of Motor Control

Ludo Max1,4, Vincent L. Gracco2,4, Frank H. Guenther3.5, Satrajit S. Ghosh3, and Marie E. Wallace1,4
1University of Connecticut, Department of Communication Sciences, 850 Bolton Road Unit 1085, Storrs, CT 06269-1085, USA
2McGill University, School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, 1266 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A8, Canada
3Boston University, Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, CT 06511-6695, USA
5Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory of Electronics 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 021139-4307, USA

SUMMARY

We present a theoretical perspective on stuttering based on a wide range of empirical data regarding the neuroscience of motor control. This perspective relies heavily on recent insights into models of motor control incorporating (a) feedforward and feedback. control schemes, (b) the formation, consolidation, and updating of inverse and forward internal models of effector system dynamics, and (c) cortical and subcortical activation patterns during speech and nonspeech motor tasks. We suggest that stuttering may result either when producing speech with inaccurate internal models or with a motor strategy that is weighted too much toward feedback control. The overall perspective can account not only for the primary characteristics of the disorder but also for several of the associated phenomena (e. g., age of onset, fluency enhancing conditions, treatment effects). Furthermore, this sensorimotor perspective on stuttering is consistent with computer simulations implemented in the DIVA model -a neural network model of the central control of speech movements.

Read more: A Sensorimotor Perspective on Stuttering: Insights from the Neuroscience of Motor Control

Examining Adaptation and Bilingualism in Stuttering

Examining Adaptation and Bilingualism in Stuttering

Nancy E . Hall1 and David L. Evans2
1University of Maine, 5724 Dunn Hall, Orono, ME, 04469, USA
2Private Practice, Los Angeles, CA, USA

SUMMARY

This paper presents the results of an exploratory case study examining the oral-motor rehearsal theory of adaptation by investigating the phenomenon in bilingual people who stu:ter. Through the use of a unique methodology, speakers were asked to read the same passage in one language five times, after which the passage remained the same, but the language changed. This method held linguistic meaning constant, while changing the oral-motor movements. The results are discussed relative to future research efforts.

Read more: Examining Adaptation and Bilingualism in Stuttering

Distribution of Disfluencies According to Word Class Categorization in Brazilian Portuguese

Distribution of Disfluencies According to Word Class Categorization in Brazilian Portuguese

Fabiola Juste and Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
Department of Physiotherapy, Speech-Language and Hearing Science and Occupational Therapy, School of Medicine, University of Scio Paulo, Rua Cipotanea 5], Cidade Universitciria, Siio Paulo -S.P., 05360-160, Brazil

SUMMARY

This study aimed to verify the influence of word class in the speech disruptions of fluent and stuttering children, speakers of the Brazilian Portuguese. Participants of this study were 20 stuttering children (GI) and 20 fluent children (GII), 26 males and 14 females, whose ages ranged from 4.0 to 11.11 years. Speech samples were collected and the distribution of frequency of disfluency were classified by type and grammatical class. The results indicate that both groups present a higher number of speech disruptions in closed class words and for GI a small difference was observed for SLD in open class words.

Read more: Distribution of Disfluencies According to Word Class Categorization in Brazilian Portuguese

Aspects of Normally Fluent Speech in Brazilian Adults

Aspects of Normally Fluent Speech in Brazilian Adults

Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade, Femanda Chiarion Sassi,  Daniela Veronica Zackiewicz
Department of Physiotherapy, Speech-Language and Hearing Science and Occupational Therapy, School of Medicine, University'ofSc'io Paulo, Rua Cipotanea 51, Cidade Universitaria, Siio Paulo - S.P., 05360-160, Brazil

SUMMARY

This study aimed to describe the normally fluent speech of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults who do not stutter. Speech samples of 30 adults, 13 males and 17 females, whose ages ranged from 20 to 43 years, and had no history of any communication disorders were analyzed and the following measures obtained: speech typology of disruptions (typical and less typical disruptions), speech rate (syllables and words per minute), and rate of disruptions (percentage of speech discontinuity and percentage of stuttered syllables). Mean values and confidence levels and the clinical implications of these findings are presented.

Read more: Aspects of Normally Fluent Speech in Brazilian Adults

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JFD

Journal of Fluency DisordersBrowse the current issue
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non-members)

The official journal of the International Fluency Association
IFA Members receive online access to JFD as a member benefit.

Read more: JFD

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