IFA Congresses

Cerebral Lateraization of Speech Processing in Adult and Child Stutterers: Near Infrared Spectroscopy and MEG Study

Cerebral Lateraization of Speech Processing in Adult and Child Stutterers: Near Infrared Spectroscopy and MEG Study

Koichi Mori1, Yutaka Sato1, Emi Ozawa1 and Satoshi Imaizump2
1National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities, 4-] Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8555, Japan
2Hiroshima Prefectural College of Health Sciences,I -I Gakuen, M ihara, Hiroshima 723-0053, Japan

SUMMARY

Cerebral lateralization of speech processing in stutterers were assessed with noninvasive brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography and multichannel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), with which neuromagnetic and hemodynamic responses, respectively, were recorded to analysis-synthesized prosodic and phonemic minimal contrast word trains. Adult stutterers did not show normal leftward dominance for the phonemic contrast with either method. Children underwent only NIRS sessions, with results similar to those of adults, which indicates that the cerebral dominance in processing heard speech is in disarray even in school-age stutterers. The NIRS method may be useful in screening young stutterers and in elucidating neural correlates of stuttering.

Read more: Cerebral Lateraization of Speech Processing in Adult and Child Stutterers: Near Infrared...

Kinematic Changes Following Static Perturbation in People Who Stutter

Kinematic Changes Following Static Perturbation in People Who Stutter

Aravind Kumar Namasivayam and Pascal H.H.M. Van Lieshout

Oral Dynamics Laboratory, Graduate Department of Speech-Language Pathology University of Toronto, 500 University Ave, Toronto, ON M5G 1 V7, Canada.

SUMMARY

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not persons who stutter (PWS) could compensate to the presence of a static (bite-block) perturbation. We hypothesized that, if PWS have a limited ability in utilizing sensory information then they would be unable to adequately control their lip movements to deal with the fixed jaw position. Results indicated that PWS like their matched controls were able to compensate for the presence of a static perturbation. However, there were differences between the two groups in terms of their use of motor control strategies during compensation.

Read more: Kinematic Changes Following Static Perturbation in People Who Stutter

Sensory Integration and Stuttering Therapy

Sensory Integration and Stuttering Therapy

Caroline Nater-Berkeljon
Stottercentrum Rijnlana’, Hazenboslaan 38, 2341 SC, Oegstgeest, the Netherlands

SUMMARY

Sensory integration is the way we take in information, organize and process this information to give an appropriate response. Comprehension of the process of sensory integration makes it possible to understand why a child has a speech problem. As sensory dysfunction could be a handicap to speak fluently. Speech fluency goals are therefore easier achieved by starting to train the sensory integration in the first place. Sensory integration is also useful to modify stuttering, to increase toleranace to stuttering and to facilitate or automate speech-behaviors.

Read more: Sensory Integration and Stuttering Therapy

A Within- and Between-Subject FMRI Experiment Before and After a Fluency Shaping Therapy

A Within- and Between-Subject FMRI Experiment Before and After a Fluency Shaping Therapy

Katrin Neumann1, Harald A. Euler2, Christine Preibisch3, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg4
1Clinic of Phoniatry and Pedaadiology, University of Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 F rankfurt/Main, Germany
2Department of Psychology, University of Kassel, Hollaend. St): 36-38, 3412 7 Kassel, Germany
3Department of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt, Schlensenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
4Institute of the Kasseler Stottertherapie, 34308 Bad Emstal, Germany

SUMMARY

FMRI findings of 9 male persons who stutter (PWS) compared to 16 non-stuttering controls (PWNS) are reported. Distributed, predominantly right-hernispheric overactivations in PWS during overt reading were more widespread and left-sided after fluency shaping therapy and were slightly reduced and again more right-sided two years later. These findings, together with larger activations post-treatment also in a semantic task, suggest that overactivations might reflect compensatory mechanisms. Left frontal deactivations were insensitive to therapy and therefore possibly indicate dysfunctions. Thus, fluency-inducing techniques might synchronize a disturbed signal transmission between auditory, speech motor planning, and motor areas.

Read more: A Within- and Between-Subject FMRI Experiment Before and After a Fluency Shaping Therapy

A Sensorimotor Perspective on Stuttering: Insights from the Neuroscience of Motor Control

A Sensorimotor Perspective on Stuttering: Insights from the Neuroscience of Motor Control

Ludo Max1,4, Vincent L. Gracco2,4, Frank H. Guenther3.5, Satrajit S. Ghosh3, and Marie E. Wallace1,4
1University of Connecticut, Department of Communication Sciences, 850 Bolton Road Unit 1085, Storrs, CT 06269-1085, USA
2McGill University, School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, 1266 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A8, Canada
3Boston University, Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, CT 06511-6695, USA
5Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory of Electronics 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 021139-4307, USA

SUMMARY

We present a theoretical perspective on stuttering based on a wide range of empirical data regarding the neuroscience of motor control. This perspective relies heavily on recent insights into models of motor control incorporating (a) feedforward and feedback. control schemes, (b) the formation, consolidation, and updating of inverse and forward internal models of effector system dynamics, and (c) cortical and subcortical activation patterns during speech and nonspeech motor tasks. We suggest that stuttering may result either when producing speech with inaccurate internal models or with a motor strategy that is weighted too much toward feedback control. The overall perspective can account not only for the primary characteristics of the disorder but also for several of the associated phenomena (e. g., age of onset, fluency enhancing conditions, treatment effects). Furthermore, this sensorimotor perspective on stuttering is consistent with computer simulations implemented in the DIVA model -a neural network model of the central control of speech movements.

Read more: A Sensorimotor Perspective on Stuttering: Insights from the Neuroscience of Motor Control

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JFD

Journal of Fluency DisordersBrowse the current issue
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non-members)

The official journal of the International Fluency Association
IFA Members receive online access to JFD as a member benefit.

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