Communication Therapy Institute, I Hadar Street, Matan 45858 Israel
Successful stuttering therapy requires well-defined goals that will lead to the generation of fluent speech. The necessity of self-change is mandatory to achieve these goals. The combination of the speech processing model and a six-stage program of change shows how people who stutter can develop effective goals and take specific and appropriate steps to bring about the necessary change. A follow-up study explores how realistic it is to for people who stutter to make 1ong-term change and whether the effort to make self- change is worthwhile.
The contrast of persistent stuttering vs. incidents of recovery leads us to explore the possible differences between people who recover from stuttering and those who do not. One possibility is that the type or etiology of stuttering may affect recovery. Cooper and Cooper (1995) propose that there is a population of chronic stutterers who are not capable of recovery.
Another possible factor affecting the continuance of stuttering is the way individuals approach recovery. Some people who stutter enter treatment with the hope that therapy will be the “magic cure” or at least teach them a trick or technique to use when they are going to stutter. These individuals relate to fluency as an object to be acquired; their entire focus of attention is solely on the speech that is produced. They do not consider that both fluent and disfluent speech is the result of a process of speech production. Therefore, they attempt to change the speech without making changes in the way that the speech production system functions.
In contrast, other individuals may recover from stuttering because either consciously or subconsciously, they make changes in the way that the speech production system functions. These individuals introspect in an effort to discover what they are doing or thinking to create stuttered speech. They are focused on the process of speaking and make the changes necessary to generate fluent speech.
Here we will consider that an approach toward recovery that considers self-change as the key to success will improve therapy outcomes. We will examine the therapy process and identify what needs to be changed and what steps need to be taken to actually make the necessary changes. Instead of focusing on speech fluency, we will look at stuttered speech as one symptom of a dynamic speech production system that includes elements of speech-language planning and production that is in part driven by the thoughts, attitudes, and learned responses of the speaker (Dahm, 1997 ). We will explore whether changes in all these aspects of the system will lead to fluent speech and satisfaction with one’s ability to speak.
- Targets for change
In order to understand the changes that have to be made to generate fluent speech, we need to consider how speech is normally produced. A model of normal speech production (Levelt, 1989) proposes that speech production Involves conceptualizing, grammatical and phonological encoding and motor execution along with a system of self-monitoring. The author argues that during speech production, conceptualizing requires conscious attention. However, the other components are largely automatic. “This automaticity (sic) makes it possible for them to work in parallel, which is a main condition for the generation of fluent speech.” (p.2).
Generating Fluent Speech: A Comprehensive Speech Processing Approach (GFS) is a treatment program that guides people who stutter to internally change the way they produce speech. Although fluent speech is the natural outcome of successful therapy, the goal of therapy does not focus on speech fluency. Treatment goals focus on changing the way that people who stutter carry out the same processes that Levelt includes in his model of speech production. (Figure l)
Figure 1. Comparison of the Levelt model of speech production to the speech processing goals of Generating Fluent Speech
The relationship between neural processing and stuttering has been consistently observed. However, stuttering should not be viewed only in terms of brain function. While the production of fluent speech is dependent on the processes used to produce speech, the processes used are driven by the speaker’s perceptions, thoughts, coping strategies, attitudes and beliefs concerning speech, stuttering, self and, in some cases, the nature of relationships with others. Affect and cognition have an impact on stuttering (Shapiro, 1999; Smith & Kelly, 1996). Lack of change in these areas prevents people who stutter from adopting new processes for the generation of speech.
- Complexity of change
Changing behavior, cognition and affect does not happen because the individual wills it to happen. Change does not happen because the client entrusts himself to therapy administered by a qualified professional. Self-change is an active and internal process. The clinician can guide the client to set necessary goals for achieving desired results and support him through the treatment process, but it is the client who must actually take the steps that are necessary to bridge the gap between the setting of goals and achieving them. The process of self-change is not a simple one. Prochaska et al. (1994) report that 45% of patients drop out of psychotherapy prematurely. Nevertheless, change is not only possible; it is unavoidable. Living is dynamic and resisting all change is impossible. The purpose of treatment is, therefore, not to start a process of inevitable change, but to direct change to go ahead in the desired direction. ' 164 Theory, research and therapy in fluency disorders
- The goals of self-change
Figure 2. Examples of Generating Fluent Speech goals.
The fact that there is a cause and effect relationship between the process of speech production and the fluency of speech does not mean that the only important goals are specifically speech possessing goals. Establishing long-term change requires a two-pronged approach. One prong involves “planting”, cultivating cognitive and attitudinal change. The other involves “˜building”, constructing new behavioral patterns (Kelemen, 2001). Goals that relate to planting enable the individual to develop values and perspective that become internalized and eventually determine behavior. Building goals relate to learning and the acquisition 0" new behaviors. Generating Fluent Speech incorporates both planting and building goals. (Figure 2.) It focuses on developing the processes that are essential for generating fluent speech, establishing a belief system that supports these processes, and taking steps to internalize them until they become intuitive.
- The steps for making change
Figure 3. Processes of change that are appropriate to the stages of change (Prochaska er al. 1994)
- Results of treatment
In addition, objective measures of speech fluency were obtained pre and post treatment. The entire Stuttering Severity Inventory-3 (Riley, 1994) was used in order to assess was the severity of stuttering. On this instrument the ratings range from very mild to very severe. In order to give a number Value we have labeled very mild=1; mild=2; moderate=3; severe=4; very severe=5; 0=below the very mild severity rating.
Figure 4. Speech Satisfaction Scales statements
Results of the SSI-3 show that the mean SSI severity scores for all clients before therapy was 3.27 with a standard deviation of 1.23. After therapy the mean SSI severity score for all clients was 0.70 with a standard deviation of 0.95. A t-test for the difference in the averages gives a sample t-statistic of t=12.7 (n=30), which is highly significant (p<0.0001). Figure 5 shows the individual scores of each client before and after therapy. For individual clients SSl-3 severity ratings show that after therapy 17 out of 30 clients were essentially fluent at the end of intensive therapy. An additional 7 clients were rated as 1=very mild stutterers; 4 clients were rated as 2=mild; 2 were rated as 3:moderate and none were rated as severe or very severe. This compared with before therapy ratings of 5 clients 5=very severe stutterers; 9 clients 4=severe; 8 clients 3=moderate; 5 clients 2=mild; 3 clients l=very mild.
Figure 5. Comparison of SSI-3 scores of individual clients before and after therapy
Table 1. Comparison of mean SPAT ratings after tx and after 3-4 and 5-6 months after Tx
Results of SPAT show that the mean scores of all clients changed before and after therapy. Before therapy the mean scores were 3.91. After therapy the mean score was 1.94. A t-test for the difference in the averages gives a t-statistic of t=l5.77 (n=30), which is highly significant (p<0.000l). Between 3-4 months after therapy the mean scores was 1.91. Between 5-6 months after therapy the mean scores was 1.87. When comparing mean scores after therapy and 5-6 months after therapy there is a mean difference of 0.065 with a standard error of 0.093. When comparing mean scores after therapy and 3-4 months after therapy there is a mean difference of 0.02 with a standard error of 0.698. Both differences are non-significant (refer to the t-test in Table 1; For example, for the two-sided test for 5-6 months after treatment, the significance level is 0.4908).
Stuttering severity ratings before and after treatment and SPAT ratings over a period of six months indicate that it is possible that the targets of change and the processes used to bring about change in a treatment program designed to affect inner change in cognition, affect and the internal processes for generating speech do improve the outcome of therapy. The degree of improvement appears to surpass the assessment that one third of all clients make good improvement. Although etiology of stuttering cannot be ruled out as an indicator of success, the approach to recovery also appears to be an indicator of successful preferred client and clinical outcomes. Further study including assessment over a longer period of time would be beneficial to determine more fully the degree to which this treatment affects long-term change.
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I am indebted to Professor Haim Shore of Ben-Gurion University for his assistance with the statistical analysis.